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Comment & Response
August 25, 2015

Opioid Dependence Treatment in the Emergency Department—Reply

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
  • 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
JAMA. 2015;314(8):835. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.8527

In Reply Dr Swartz provides an opportunity to discuss the fundamental principles of clinical research and opioid dependence treatment that guided our study. Clinical trial design involves selecting a primary, clinically important outcome at a point in time.1 Our primary outcome was engagement in treatment at 30 days. We chose engagement in treatment as the primary outcome because it is associated with decreased criminal activity, HIV transmission, and mortality.24

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