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Experiments with Culex pipiens, Theobaldia annulata, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles maculipennis were conducted to determine the effects of combinations of various temperatures and humidities on their length of life, their biting habits, their hibernation activities and the finding of places of shelter. The morphologic and bionomic differences between the varieties messeae and atroparvus of Anopheles maculipennis are recapitulated and discussed in connection with their malaria-carrying ability. It is shown that the distributions of these two varieties between houses and stables may be exactly opposite in different climates or may differ markedly in different regions, owing to differences in the prevalence of construction of dwellings and stables. The influences, favorable and unfavorable, of temperatures and humidities on the longevity or mortality of various species and races of mosquitoes are shown to be the chief determining factors in their different distributions. The authors attack the problem of anophelism without malaria in a
Über das Verhalten von Stechmücken besonders von Anopheles maculipennis bei verschiedenen Temperaturen und Luftfeuchtigkeiten.. JAMA. 1933;101(11):879. doi:10.1001/jama.1933.02740360059044