One of the first demands for reconstructive surgery came through the necessity of repair of old facial burns. The custom in early warfare of pouring boiling pitch over the walls onto the invading host doubtless furnished many cases. The last war evolved certain surgical procedures now in general use: the Stent graft (Esser outlay), the perfection of the tube flap and the popularization of larger skin grafts.
The present-day machine age has so greatly multiplied the number of burned faces that they are more numerous today than they were in war time. There is now more opportunity to study these cases, as they are usually carried through to reconstruction in one hospital. Constant observation of these cases over several years has brought new emphasis on methods of determining scar causation and treatment.
The cause of the burn is not particularly important, as reconstructive surgery is not advisable until the tissue
UPDEGRAFF HL. RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY AND OLD FACIAL BURNS. JAMA. 1933;101(15):1138–1140. doi:10.1001/jama.1933.02740400024007