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January 3, 1931


Author Affiliations


JAMA. 1931;96(1):30-33. doi:10.1001/jama.1931.02720270032009

My thesis rests on a conviction that it is a mistake, with present knowledge, to use any one criterion as the basis of clinical prognosis in cancer. It is such immature clinical utilization of scientific observations which discredits science and impedes its rightful progress. I bring this subject up because of recent literature on the grading of cancers. It is perfectly legitimate and proper to attempt grading; and various criteria should be recorded individually and collectively and studied. The facts, however, which my associate. Dr. Broders, and I have presented over a number of years, although they have scientific interest and furnish a better understanding of the behavior of cancer, should not be used for practical prognosis regardless of other important and well known clinical factors. From my own clinical and pathologic experience there are at least fifteen factors governing prognosis in cancer. I shall describe them briefly in the

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