Blood glucose control is considered the cornerstone of diabetes management. Clinical trials have shown that improving blood glucose can lower the risk of early microvascular complications, although no trials have had a long enough duration of follow-up to demonstrate significant reductions in end-stage outcomes such as visual loss, end-stage renal disease, or amputation. Nearly all diabetes clinical guidelines include recommendations to maintain tight glucose control, most commonly defined as a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of less than 7.0%, for the majority of patients with diabetes.
Vijan S, Fagerlin A. Diabetes Risk Assessment and Glycemic Control. JAMA. 2015;314(17):1861-1862. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.11518