In the thirty odd years since Schafer1 introduced prone pressure artificial respiration, this method of resuscitation has come to be used in all English speaking countries to the virtual exclusion of all other manual methods. In this country the Red Cross and the United States Bureau of Mines, through their field agents and by enlisting the collaboration of others, have trained many millions of persons—police, firemen, seamen, miners, boy and girl scouts, college students and others —in this method of resuscitation.
Outside the English speaking countries, however, the Silvester2 and other older methods are still extensively used, and various other manual methods—generally modifications of that of Schafer—have in recent years been proposed. All these methods, old and new, were demonstrated by means of photographs and respiratory measurements at the International Congress on Resuscitation and First Aid at Zurich in August 1939.3 One of us participated, and in
HENDERSON Y, TURNER JM. ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION AND INHALATIONTHE PRINCIPLE DETERMINING THE EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS METHODS. JAMA. 1941;116(14):1508–1515. doi:10.1001/jama.1941.02820140020006