In Reply We do not have data on whether the first epinephrine bolus was administered by an intravenous or intraosseous injection. The variable we used for assessment of epinephrine administration included both intravenous and intraosseous administration but did not distinguish between the two.
Similarly, we did not have reliable and consistent data on whether the patient already had functioning vascular access at the time of the cardiac arrest.
Andersen LW, Berg KM, Donnino MW. Epinephrine Administration and Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest—Reply. JAMA. 2016;315(4):417. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.16464