One of the largest ever randomized trials has concluded that ovarian cancer screening may reduce ovarian cancer mortality by an estimated 20% after up to 14 years (Jacobs IJ et al. Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01224-6 [published online December 17, 2015]). Ovarian cancer has had a poor prognosis for 3 decades; currently, less than 30% of patients are diagnosed at an early, potentially curable, stage.
The UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) randomly assigned 202 638 postmenopausal women in a 1:1:2 ratio to annual multimodal screening (MMS) with serum CA125 interpreted with the risk of ovarian cancer algorithm, rather than an absolute cutoff, and with transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVS) as a second-line test (MMS group); annual TVS alone (USS group); or no screening. The MMS and USS groups were offered 7 to 11 screens and followed up for 14 years from randomization.
Slomski A. Mega Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Shows Modest Reduction in Mortality. JAMA. 2016;315(8):742. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.0481