Defects of cranial bone are not uncommon. All sorts of materials have been used in attempts to close these defects during the past four centuries. Animal bone,1 celluloid,2 aluminum,3 gold,4 silver,5 platinum,6 autogenic7 and heterogenic7 bone grafts, cartilage,8 sliding grafts of cranial bone,9 decalcified bone,10 buttons of bone11 and chips of bone12 have been used.
There has been a great variation of opinion concerning the use of these materials. Most of the materials caused a reaction as to a foreign body and sloughed out or had to be removed. This is particularly true of all the materials except autogenic bone grafts. Because of this reaction all operations involving metal plates had been discarded. Grant and Norcross13 have made an exhaustive search of the literature on this subject and have described all the known methods of cranioplasty
GEIB FW. VITALLIUM SKULL PLATES. JAMA. 1941;117(1):8–12. doi:10.1001/jama.1941.02820270008004