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April 28, 1934


JAMA. 1934;102(17):1400-1401. doi:10.1001/jama.1934.02750170050013

At the beginning of one of the chapters of Claude Bernard's "Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" he remarks:

Only within very narrow boundaries can man observe the phenomena which surround him; most of them naturally escape his senses, and mere observation is not enough. To extend his knowledge, he has had to increase the power of his organs by means of special appliances; at the same time he has equipped himself with various instruments enabling him to penetrate inside of bodies, to dissociate them and to study their hidden parts. A necessary order may thus be established among the different processes of investigation or research, whether simple or complex: the first apply to those objects easiest to examine, for which our senses suffice; the second bring within our observation, by various means, objects and phenomena which would otherwise remain unknown to us forever, because in their natural state

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