Recent research by investigators from the Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis found that sugars containing sialic acid, which has been implicated in brain development, were more abundant in breast milk from Malawian mothers with healthy babies compared with stunted babies and appeared to improve offspring growth in an animal model (Charbonneau MR et al. Cell. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.01.024 [published online February 18, 2016]).
Hampton T. Sialylated Sugars in Breast Milk Help Gut Microbes Promote Infant Growth. JAMA. 2016;315(13):1327. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.3234