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In this monograph the author first takes up preliminary details that he considers of great importance for the relief of pain during labor; namely, the treatment of the more common mental and physical discomforts. He points out the different requirements in the first and second stages of labor and considers in detail a few methods of producing relief in each of these stages of labor. For use in the first stage the author takes up (1) morphine and scopolamine, (2) tribrom-ethanol (avertin) (3) the barbiturates (nembutal, pernocton and sodium amytal), (4) paraldehyde and (5) nitrous oxide and oxygen. For relief in the second stage, he analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of (1) nitrous oxide and oxygen, (2) chloroform, (3) ether and (4) evipan. The author concludes that complete morphine-scopolamine narcosis involving repeated doses of scopolamine is a complicated procedure entirely unnecessary for the average labor. However, a single dose of
The Relief of Pain in Childbirth. JAMA. 1934;102(26):2223. doi:10.1001/jama.1934.02750260069027