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Scaling up access to antiretroviral therapy and proven approaches to HIV prevention potentially could control the HIV/AIDS pandemic and reduce it to a low level of endemicity. However, a safe and effective HIV vaccine would help reach this goal more quickly and in a more sustained way.
The scientific quest for an HIV vaccine spans nearly 3 decades and has taken multiple pathways, including attempts to induce antibody responses, T-cell responses, or combinations of both. These efforts have included human efficacy trials of monomeric HIV envelope glycoproteins, vectors containing inserts of HIV genes expressing envelope and other viral proteins, and prime-boost regimens that combine both approaches.1
Fauci AS. An HIV VaccineMapping Uncharted Territory. JAMA. 2016;316(2):143-144. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.7538