Unfortunately, the anatomic site of a cutaneous lesion must always be considered with the present methods of therapy with solidified carbon dioxide.
In the treatment of benign or malignant neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes care must be taken that normal tissue is not frozen. With the older methods of cutting pencils from solid sticks, the very brittleness of the material caused it to chip. These small particles fell on nonpathogenic tissue, sometimes with serious consequences if the site of operation was around the eyes or within the body cavities. With the average duration of treatment of ten to thirty seconds the point on a solid stick is rapidly melted and a zone larger than the lesion is found to have been included in the treatment. Solidified carbon dioxide packed in metal tubes has the disadvantage of transmission of cold through the sides.
With the apparatus described here the
Carpenter CC. A SAFE METHOD OF APPLYING SOLIDIFIED CARBON DIOXIDE. JAMA. 1942;118(4):296–297. doi:10.1001/jama.1942.62830040001010