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Many of the reactions characteristic of living cells are probably due to the fact that the molecules in the liquid-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces encountered in such cells are oriented in a specific manner. Because of this molecular orientation, surfaces acquire specific properties that are of fundamental importance in the consideration and interpretation of all types of biologic phenomena. Some ideas concerning the structure of such interfaces may be derived from a study of the differences in electrical potential observed when there is tangential movement of one phase relative to the other. This potential is known as the electrokinetic potential and may be estimated by observing the mobilities of particles in an electrical field, as in electrophoresis, or the motion of the whole body of liquid, as in electro-osmosis. In the first chapter the author discusses the historical development of the subject. Chapters II and IV, on theory, will be found
Electrokinetic Phenomena and Their Application to Biology and Medicine. JAMA. 1934;103(12):942. doi:10.1001/jama.1934.02750380062033