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An ulcer is a defect of the body surface entailing the loss of at least its epidermal covering. It may or may not be infected. It may be large or small, deep or shallow, acute or chronic, painless or painful, with exuberant granulations, indolent or indurated. It may show a tendency to spread owing to virulent infection such as chancroid, to granulomas such as syphilis, tuberculosis or lepra, to malignant disease such as carcinoma or sarcoma, or merely because of malnutrition of the tissues. In accordance with these different conditions, various ulcers need different treatment.Because of the special therapy that they require, all ulcers with a tendency to spreading and ulcers in special locations will be eliminated from this discussion, as these will be discussed under their respective headings such as corneal ulcer, peptic ulcer, ulcers of the colon and fissure of the rectum, as well as
Therapeutics. JAMA. 1935;104(4):309-314. doi:10.1001/jama.1935.02760040041010