Deaths from localized prostate cancer 10 years after detection by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing were about 1% regardless of treatment, according to a trial published in The New England Journal of Medicine.
A total of 1643 men (median age of 62 years) were randomly assigned to active monitoring, surgery, or radiotherapy. The men’s median PSA level was 4.6 ng per milliliter, 77% had tumors with a Gleason score of 6 (on a scale from 6 to 10, with higher scores indicating a worse prognosis), and 76% had stage T1c, or nonpalpable, disease. Men in the active-monitoring group were able to switch to radical treatment based on changes in their PSA levels. A quarter of this group received radical treatment within 3 years and over half by 10 years.
Slomski A. Low Prostate-Cancer Mortality No Matter the Treatment. JAMA. 2016;316(20):2078. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.17035