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June 29, 1935


Author Affiliations

From the Department of Surgery, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, University of California Medical School.

JAMA. 1935;104(26):2319-2324. doi:10.1001/jama.1935.02760260007003

The accuracy of diagnosis that one associates with fractures is lacking when the injury involves muscles and tendons. The overlapping of the latter structures and their supplementary actions make for confusion in diagnosis, often render treatment illogical and prolong convalescence. It is only by a careful segregation of the distinct clinical entities that real progress can be made. In order to review the clinical picture of these injuries we have analyzed a series of 100 injuries to muscles and tendons, which represents a cross section of private, industrial and clinic practice. We have omitted the injuries to soft parts which resulted from lacerated wounds or compound fractures.

In a consideration of the injuries of muscles and tendons, one should employ a classification such as the following, which seems to us logical because it is based on the causative forces, the contributing factors and the relative frequency:

  1. Direct trauma. A

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