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The investigation was designed to determine the importance of various visual functions as factors in reading disability. The factors considered were visual acuity, muscle balance and anomalies of ocular dominance. A group of school children in Reading, Mass., were submitted to tests for these functions, and the results were compared with their record of reading accomplishment. The use of the various tests is accurately described. The Massachusetts vision test was used in estimating visual acuity, with certain modifications, including a method of using the Landolt broken ring test in a way which seems more practical than any yet described. Variations in this test were minimized when standardized methods were employed and when one particularly well qualified member of the school staff was employed to do all the testing. Results indicated a probable association between latent hyperopia and low reading achievement. No such relationship was found between reading disability and heterophoria
The Relation of Certain Anomalies of Vision and Lateral Dominance to Reading Disability. JAMA. 1943;121(16):1313. doi:10.1001/jama.1943.02840160063028