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The author is a clinician and looks at medicine from the modern standpoint of functional derangement. A knowledge of the pathologic anatomy is, however, a requisite. The first step forward in the development of modern medicine, after the long and unproductive period dominated by Hippocrates and Galen, resulted from the achievement of Vesalius in dissection, the discovery of the circulation by Harvey, and the discovery of the capillary system by Malpighi. Nosography came to its own with the work of Sydenham. Following him many classifications of diseases appeared, some adhering to the botanic nomenclature of classes, orders and genera and others to a mere catalogue of symptoms. The earlier French school of Pinel, Bichat and Corvisart favored the pathologic description, the later, started by Laënnec with his discovery of the stethoscope and by Bretonneau, and continued by Louis and others, favored nosologic classifications. Graves, a pupil of Laënnec, introduced the
Nosography: The Evolution of Clinical Medicine in Modern Times.. JAMA. 1931;97(13):951–952. doi:10.1001/jama.1931.02730130055032