September 28, 1929


JAMA. 1929;93(13):992. doi:10.1001/jama.1929.02710130032014

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Clinical immunology is a carefully thought out and conscientious attempt to apply theories of immunity to the diagnosis, prevention and cure of infectious diseases and allied clinical conditions. In a recent article, Manwaring and Krueger1 estimated that during the last three decades no theory of immunity has assayed more than 5 per cent clinically verifiable truth. They attribute the discouraging history of vaccine and of serum therapy to this 95 per cent clinical fallibility. Recognizing this clinical fallibility, theoretical immunologists are directing an increasing amount of time and attention to the formulation and attempted verification of new or improved basic immunologic theories. It is suggested, for example, that specific antibodies may be specifically altered tissue enzymes, or antibody "enzymates."2 It is also conceived that so-called antibodies may be but "hybrid protein retention products" formed by conjugation or other interaction between injected antigens and normal humoral proteins.3 Hypotheses

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