Scrotal pathologic changes in general and testicular swellings particularly offer an open challenge to the medical profession. The clinical picture and correct management is often very baffling, and, while the subject is covered by rather a wide literature, the authors are cognizant of their own limitations and feel that many important phases of the subject are as yet unclarified.
Testicular swelling is of special interest to urologists and general surgeons because it is an accompaniment of different pathologic conditions affecting the testicle itself, and it may apparently be present in pathologic conditions in structures immediately associated with the testicle. The pathologic lesions of the testicle in which there is testicular swelling are infections, both primary and secondary, traumatisms and tumors of all types. The pathologic conditions that may simulate a testicular swelling, and from which this must be differentiated, are certain epididymitides, hydrocele, hematocele, infections and tumors of the cord
WHITE EW, GAINES RB. THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND RATIONALE OF MANAGEMENT OF TESTICULAR SWELLINGS. JAMA. 1937;108(15):1227–1234. doi:10.1001/jama.1937.02780150001001