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By grants from the Carnegie Corporation to and through the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, and under the direction of Dr. Paul Monroe, international conferences on examinations were held in England in 1931 and 1935. One of the results was the conclusion that because of varying educational and social conditions the problem could be best studied by investigations in each country. Dr. Kandel's report presents a summary of the inquiry in the United States.
The volume is divided into four chapters, the first of which outlines the problem and its social setting. The second chapter traces the background of the traditional examination, its development, its operation, its advantages and disadvantages, together with a critical analysis of grading. The third chapter outlines the scientific attack on examinations as to selection and distribution in education, purposes, experiments with new type tests, state wide and nation wide examinations, and various comprehensive
Examinations and Their Substitutes in the United States. JAMA. 1937;109(5):385. doi:10.1001/jama.1937.02780310063031