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This monograph describes briefly and concisely the varieties, nature and origin of facial spasm. The tics are divided into two groups, depending on whether the irritative focus is peripheral or central. This differential diagnosis can be made by a morphologic analysis of the muscle groups that enter into the spasmodic movement. A spasm due to peripheral involvement of the facial nerve involves only the muscles innervated by that nerve. A spasm of central origin may include movements of muscles supplied by nerves other than the facial. Facial spasm due to involvement of the facial nerve is caused by a focus of irritation affecting this nerve after its emergence from the brain stem. Not infrequently voluntary twitching occurs during recovery from a paralysis of the facial muscles (Bell's palsy). Otitis media, a cerebellopontile angle tumor, and vascular, neoplastic or infectious lesions along the course of the nerve may result in a
Les spasmes de la face et leur traitement. JAMA. 1937;109(10):818. doi:10.1001/jama.1937.02780360066035