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The accurate diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the knee joint is at its best a difficult task before operation. X-ray study has been a great aid, but in some cases the pathologic condition cannot be demonstrated. In quite a few cases the clinical history is strongly suggestive of "joint mice," which are not demonstrated on the usual x-ray views. The overlapping shadows of the patella hidden behind the lower portion of the femur and the knee joint ramifications on the anterior surface of the femur are difficult to visualize on postero-anterior views or anteroposterior views with the leg extended. Small or faint shadow-casting foreign bodies, "joint mice" or osteophytes are frequently not visualized. The joint surfaces are not clear, sharp or well separated. The detail of the upper end of the tibia is not always sharply defined, and incomplete fractures or atypical fractures of the upper
Holmblad EC. POSTERO-ANTERIOR X-RAY VIEW OF KNEE IN FLEXION. JAMA. 1937;109(15):1196-1197. doi:10.1001/jama.1937.92780410005008c