The knowledge to be derived from direct inspection of the interior of the hollow viscera led to the development of cystoscopy, bronchoscopy and proctoscopy. Kussmaul in 1868 was the first to attempt the visualization of the gastric mucosa with the aid of a straight, rigid tube. The ingenious Mikulicz in 1881 developed an elbowed gastroscope with a lamp at the end and the objective of the optical system just proximal to the light. The instrument was equipped with an air channel through which the stomach could be inflated. The Mikulicz gastroscope was an important advance, as it possessed almost all the features present in the modern gastroscope. The passage of a thick, rigid tube, however, was fraught with many hazards such as the perforation of the esophagus. It therefore found few adherents in this country.
Schindler,1 after considerable experience with the rigid instrument, concluded that a proper gastroscope should
GASTROSCOPY. JAMA. 1938;110(5):373–374. doi:10.1001/jama.1938.02790050051013