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Article
August 6, 1932

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the President and of the Treasurer.

JAMA. 1932;99(6):499. doi:10.1001/jama.1932.02740580067035

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Abstract

In the chapter entitled "Past and Future" the author says: "Our schools are responsive to popular aspiration and consequently to public opinion as is no other national system of education. Schoolmasters determine the purposes and the policies of education, as distinguished from its procedures, far less than do the clients who organize, support, and control the schools through private or public agencies.... The wide range of school performances which we observe in the United States is not the result of a confused professional mind, as some critics superficially assume; it is a clear indication that America is a huge social laboratory in which thousands of sincere, if not always well advised and well controlled, experiments are being conducted. Here social aspiration and criticism, both intuitive and scientific, are at work.... The way out of a confusion which has its source in sincere, widespread experimentation is not to have none of

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