Procaine, or the hydrochloride of beta-diethylaminoethanol para-aminobenzoate, was synthesized by Einhorn1 in 1904 (published in 1905). Its widespread use and popularity produced many experimental and clinical reports on the pharmacology and toxicology of procaine and related compounds. These were mainly related to the subcutaneous use of the compound.
EVALUATION OF PROCAINE IN THE LITERATURE
Eggleston and Hatcher2 in 1916 and 1919, working with cats, reported that toxic effects of procaine were in direct proportion to the rate of introduction of the drug into the blood stream. They found that the injection of a sublethal dose produced an abrupt fall in blood pressure (believed to be due to cardiac effect) and cessation of respiration, followed by brief but severe clonic convulsions. This sublethal dose could be repeated with procaine in twenty minute periods without evidence of accumulation. Also, continuous intravenous administration of the compound
EDMONDS GW, COMER WH, KENNEDY JD, TAYLOR IB. INTRAVENOUS USE OF PROCAINE IN GENERAL ANESTHESIA. JAMA. 1949;141(11):761-767. doi:10.1001/jama.1949.02910110013005