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This work was submitted by Hanum as his thesis for his degree of doctor of medicine. The material was compiled from examination of patients in Copenhagen hospitals during the years 1928 to 1938. Examinations were made of 966 patients with diabetes, 195 of these having retinal lesions. Statistical data, including age, duration of the disease, sex, gravity of the diabetes and incidence of retinal manifestation are catalogued and compared with material of authorities such as Joslin, Waite and Beetham, Braun and Wagener and Wilder. The history and the ophthalmoscopic picture in diabetes are reviewed. The retinal manifestations are divided into four types: (1) exudative diabetic retinitis, (2) circinoid diabetic retinitis, (3) hemorrhagic diabetic retinitis and (4) proliferative diabetic retinitis. Sixty per cent of his 195 patients had the first type. The fourth type is considered in great detail. There were only twelve patients with this type, and Hanum believes that
Diabetic Retinitis: Clinical Studies of 195 Cases of Retinal Changes in Diabetics. JAMA. 1939;113(2):171-172. doi:10.1001/jama.1939.02800270071033