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Until recently, physicians have dealt with the human being living and working on or underneath the earth's surface. With the advent of aviation, problems arose as the result of activity in a new environment. Mechanical and physical questions presented themselves. Man's ability for orientation in this new sphere was involved. Unaided by mechanical instruments, blind flying was impossible and as a rule resulted in a crash. Without mechanical guides and aids, aviation is impossible in fog, in clouds, over large bodies of water or in the dark. A pilot loses all sense of direction, position, speed and space whenever he is deprived of the horizon, heavenly bodies or some other mark that enables him to maintain spatial orientation. Through investigation, research, experiments and application, this obstacle to aviation has been practically surmounted. Refinements will of course ensue, but fundamental principles are quite well established. By means of the turn and
Blind Flight in Theory and Practice.. JAMA. 1932;99(21):1805. doi:10.1001/jama.1932.02740730069040