The trial period of surgical refrigeration may be measured from the first publication of experiments on animals and clinical cases in 19371 or, better, from the adoption of the method on the surgical service of the City Hospital in 1941.2 It is now timely to review the experience of these years. The method originated as a shockless anesthesia, but its extension to preservative and other uses has greatly widened its application.
The theoretic or experimental attacks against the principle of reduced temperature were answered in former publications.3 Opponents attributed to reduced temperature injuries which were actually due to complicating conditions such as pressure or the moisture and other factors which are concerned in "immersion foot"; they also failed to distinguish the different action of cold on the entire body, on local parts of the body or on local parts isolated from the body by amputation or a
CROSSMAN LW, ALLEN FM. SURGICAL REFRIGERATION AND PRESERVATION OF TISSUE. JAMA. 1947;133(6):377–382. doi:10.1001/jama.1947.02880060019005