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May 27, 1950

An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine

JAMA. 1950;143(4):401. doi:10.1001/jama.1950.02910390073029

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This book was written by Bernard at that period of his scientific career when grouping of facts and theorizing began to take precedence over noting of details. Bernard's outlook in this book is biologic and philosophic. Medicine has passed through the empiric, the systematic, the nosologic and the morphologic stages and has now entered the experimental stage. Bernard envisioned physiology as the foundation of experimental medicine and a larger part of biology. He was superior to his teacher Magendie, as well as to the great Bichat, according to Paul Bert, his pupil and successor to the chair of general physiology at Sorbonne, because he was aware from the beginning of the endless multiplicity of unknown data in physiology and their subordination to the general laws of matter and their obedience to the experimental method. "If a comparison were required to express my idea of science of life," says Claude Bernard,

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