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Because infection of the urinary tract so frequently complicates bacterial processes elsewhere, it is one of the commonest diseases of children and, in patients under 2 years of age, probably outranks any other. When the urinary infection is neither self-limited nor therapeutically cured within a period of from four to six weeks, the persistent pyuria quite regularly leads to the erroneous or inadequate diagnosis of chronic pyelitis or chronic cystitis. In these cases the inadequacy of the diagnosis pyelitis or cystitis is comparable to that of laryngitis when the disease is chronic pulmonary tuberculosis. It is my purpose here to demonstrate that (1) chronic pyuria is seldom the sign of an uncomplicated disease, (2) demonstration of the associated etiologic factors regularly requires complete urologic examination and (3) frequently urologic surgical treatment is demanded to control the infection or to save life. The clinical data here recorded were obtained by personal
CAMPBELL MF. CHRONIC URINARY INFECTION IN INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD. JAMA. 1932;99(27):2231–2234. doi:10.1001/jama.1932.02740790001001