Hemorrhage from the upper alimentary tract has been reported to occur in from 21 to 28% of patients with Laennec's cirrhosis.1 Furthermore, hemorrhage is the most frequent cause of death in patients with cirrhosis, being directly or indirectly responsible for 20 to 50% of deaths.2 Since several potential sources of hemorrhage may exist in patients with cirrhosis of the liver, it is often a problem to determine the cause of the bleeding. This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of bleeding from various sources.
The case records of 200 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Laennec's cirrhosis were reviewed. These patients had been hospitalized at Wadsworth General Hospital between July, 1950, and June, 1953. The incidence and sources of bleeding were determined. Episodes of hematemesis or melena in the distant past were not included, the analysis being confined to episodes of upper alimentary tract hemorrhage actually
Fainer DC, Halsted JA. SOURCES OF UPPER ALIMENTARY TRACT HEMORRHAGE IN CIRRHOSIS OF THE LIVER. JAMA. 1955;157(5):413–414. doi:10.1001/jama.1955.02950220007002