• A patient whose illness had begun with edema and hypertension was found to have suffered extreme atrophy of both kidneys. Because of the steady worsening of the condition and the appearance of uremia with other unfavorable prognostic signs, transplantation of one kidney from the patient's healthy identical twin brother was undertaken.
Preparations included collection of evidence of monozygosity and experimental transplantation of a skin graft from the twin. During the transfer of the healthy kidney it was totally ischemic for 82 minutes. Evidence of functional activity in the transplanted kidney was obtained.
The hypertension persisted until the patient's diseased kidneys were both removed. The homograft has survived for 11 months, and the marked clinical improvement in the patient has included disappearance of the signs of malignant hypertension.
Merrill JP, Murray JE, Harrison JH, Guild WR. SUCCESSFUL HOMOTRANSPLANTATION OF THE HUMAN KIDNEY BETWEEN IDENTICAL TWINS. JAMA. 1956;160(4):277–282. doi:10.1001/jama.1956.02960390027008