[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]
Other Articles
October 19, 1940

The Pineal Organ: The Comparative Anatomy of Median and Lateral Eyes, with Special Reference to the Origin of the Pineal Body; and a Description of the Human Pineal Organ Considered from the Clinical and Surgical Standpoints

JAMA. 1940;115(16):1396-1397. doi:10.1001/jama.1940.02810420082033

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.


It appears obvious that the greater part of this book, more than the first 400 pages, is the work of Dr. Gladstone, whereas Mr. Wakeley's contribution is to be found in the last fifty pages. The first section, concerned with comparative anatomy and embryology, is based on the hypothesis that the pineal body is the vestige of a median or parietal eye. In passing it should be noted that the proof of this hypothesis is not presented in any clear and concise form. In fact, if it is presented at all it is lost in a tremendous mass of verbiage. The first two hundred odd pages are concerned with a discussion of the lateral and median eyes and their relationships in both invertebrates and vertebrates, a large number of both being presented in great detail. The author then presents the "pineal system" of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. The

First Page Preview View Large
First page PDF preview
First page PDF preview