• Pericardial biopsy was performed in 16 patients, including 6 with hemorrhagic pericarditis. In one case of tuberculous pericarditis the duration of symptoms had been 60 months. The procedure permitted direct inspection of the pericardial sac, culture of fluid and tissue, and drainage of the effusion fluid into the left pleural cavity. Abrupt release of fluid in cases of pericardial tamponade caused no difficulties, and postoperative reactions were mild.
Proudfit WL, Effler DB. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CARDIAC PERICARDITIS BY PERICARDIAL BIOPSY. JAMA. 1956;161(3):188-192. doi:10.1001/jama.1956.02970030006002