• It is necessary to classify cystic disorders of the kidney with care because the prognoses of the various entities are quite different, depending on the type of the cysts, whether single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral, simple or complicated, painful or asymptomatic. The nature of the liquid found in the cyst helps to decide whether the lesion is to be considered malignant. Gross specimens, schematic diagrams, and pyelograms are shown to illustrate simple cyst, unilateral cyst with papillary carcinoma visible on part of the wall, cyst secondary to tuberculous pyelonephritis, bilateral familial diffuse cystic disease with preservation of the reniform organ contours and of functioning nephrons, unilateral cystic disease with destruction of both form and function, and other types of cysts that surround all or part of the kidney. The experiences of the authors lead to the conviction that the standard treatment of bilateral familial polycystic disease of the kidneys remains medical except when specific complications exist.
Spence HM, Baird SS, Ware EW. CYSTIC DISORDERS OF THE KIDNEY—CLASSIFICATION, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT. JAMA. 1957;163(16):1466-1472. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.02970510032007