The reliability of the diagnosis of cancer was questioned in connection with a series of cases of mammary carcinoma in which the five-year survival rate, among patients in whom the diagnosis had been confirmed by histopathological study, had been 44%. Slides representing 136 such cases were reviewed independently by three pathologists. In 130 of the 136 cases their reports were either unanimously positive or unanimously negative as to the diagnosis of cancer. It was necessary to conclude that the histopathological examination had a high degree of reliability and that the five-year survival rate found in this series of mammary carcinomas was genuine.
Linden G, Cline JW, Wood DA, Guiss LW, Breslow L. VALIDITY OF PATHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF BREAST CANCER. JAMA. 1960;173(2):143-147. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.03020200015004