In about 75 % of patients with congenital heart disease, the type of malformation present can be accurately determined and its operability predicated by correlation of the history, physical examination, electrocardiographic findings, and conventional roentgenographic and fluoroscopic findings. In the remaining 25%, additional information must be obtained by special methods, such as cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography. Congenital cardiac anomalies can be classified into four groups on the basis of changes in the pulmonary circulation, and certain other criteria afford a basis for further subdivision. A series of roentgenograms illustrates the practical value of these facts.
Kincaid OW. APPROACH TO THE ROENTGENOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE. JAMA. 1960;173(6):637-647. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.03020240025005