Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
July 9, 1960


Author Affiliations


Lecturer in Surgery (Dr. Kouwenhoven), Resident Surgeon (Dr. Jude), and Assistant in Surgery (Mr. Knickerbocker), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

JAMA. 1960;173(10):1064-1067. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.03020280004002

Cardiac resuscitation after cardiac arrest or ventricular fibrillation has been limited by the need for open thoracotomy and direct cardiac massage. As a result of exhaustive animal experimentation a method of external transthoracic cardiac massage has been developed. Immediate resuscitative measures can now be initiated to give not only mouth-to-nose artificial respiration but also adequate cardiac massage without thoracotomy. The use of this technique on 20 patients has given an over-all permanent survival rate of 70%. Anyone, anywhere, can now initiate cardiac resuscitative procedures. All that is needed are two hands.