Cardiac resuscitation after cardiac arrest or ventricular fibrillation has been limited by the need for open thoracotomy and direct cardiac massage. As a result of exhaustive animal experimentation a method of external transthoracic cardiac massage has been developed. Immediate resuscitative measures can now be initiated to give not only mouth-to-nose artificial respiration but also adequate cardiac massage without thoracotomy. The use of this technique on 20 patients has given an over-all permanent survival rate of 70%. Anyone, anywhere, can now initiate cardiac resuscitative procedures. All that is needed are two hands.
Kouwenhoven WB, Jude JR, Knickerbocker GG. CLOSED-CHEST CARDIAC MASSAGE. JAMA. 1960;173(10):1064–1067. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.03020280004002