In 1957, the American Heart Association issued a statement on smoking and cardiovascular diseases.1 Among other things, this statement indicated that the available evidence at that time was not sufficient to justify conclusions concerning a cause and effect relationship between cigarette smoking and increased death rates from coronary heart disease.2 Since then, sufficient additional knowledge has accumulated to warrant a new report on cigarette smoking and its possible relationship to cardiovascular diseases.
Up to the present time, a number of medical studies have been completed, nearly all of which demonstrate a statistical association between heavy cigarette smoking and mortality or morbidity from coronary heart disease. In these studies, death rates in middle-aged men from coronary heart disease were found to be from 50 to 150% higher among heavy cigarette smokers than among those who do not smoke. This statistical association does not prove that heavy cigarette smoking causes
CIGARETTE SMOKING AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES. JAMA. 1960;173(10):1130. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.73020280007014d