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We live in the age of sputniks. Now that man is planning to go right on out into outer space, we need information about the cluster of problems he will encounter as he ventures forth from his ordinary habitat. Man in space suddenly confronts a myriad of new or, at least, strange physiological and medical problems. Answers can hardly be extrapolated from studies done so far on the weightless state of zero gravity for a period of only slightly more than one minute. The experiences of solitude and boredom in model space capsules make us aware that man is still the limiting factor in space travel. The first problem to confront a man launched into space is the great gravitational build-up which develops at the time of leaving the launching pad. Something of the order of nine times the ordinary force of gravity is involved. Human centrifuges have this problem
Bean WB. Man in Space. JAMA. 1960;174(3):328. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.03030030108030