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Primary ureteral carcinoma is a disease entity which previously had been thought to be quite rare. The consensus presently, however, is that it is more of an uncommon entity than a rare one.
In any patient presenting with hematuria, pain, and possibly a palpable mass, a primary ureteral carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis. The most useful diagnostic adjunct is a retrograde bulb pyelo-ureterogram. It will usually reveal a non-opaque translucent filling defect in the ureter, which is compatible with other conditions as well. The differential diagnosis rests between non-opaque calculus, blood clot, inspissated pus, and ureteral tumor. A persistent filling defect should arouse suspicion as to the presence of a ureteral tumor. Once a tentative diagnosis of ureteral tumor has been made, exploration of the ureter at the site of the defect is indicated. If a tumor is found on exploration, the definitive surgery is a complete
PRIMARY URETERAL CARCINOMA. JAMA. 1960;174(10):1322-1323. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.03030100090022