The major cutaneous problems formerly associated with ileostomy have been virtually eliminated by appliances that can be held in place by adhesives. Advances in surgical procedures for initial establishment, subsequent care, and occasionally necessary revision of the stoma have rendered possible the complete rehabilitation of most ileostomy patients. Improved surgical methods have similarly been found to prevent or correct complications of colostomy, e. g., necrosis, retraction, or stenosis of the stoma. The colostomy patient can usually attain control of feces by regular irrigations without the need of wearing a bag and thereafter rarely has psychological or social problems.
Ray JE, Hines MO, Hanley PH. Postoperative Problems of Ileostomy and Colostomy. JAMA. 1960;174(17):2118-2123. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.03030170008002