The intelligence of children whose mothers had cholecystectomies for cholelithiasis, with or without cholecystitis, was compared to the intelligence of control children. Within the group with maternal biliary-tract disease a correlation between severity of maternal illness and IQ of the child was found. The speculation was proffered that the availability of linoleic acid for fetal brain development might be decreased in pregnant women who had biliary tract disease.
Churchill JA, Ayers MA, Caldwell DF. Intelligence of Children Whose Mothers Have Biliary Tract Disease. JAMA. 1967;201(6):482-484. doi:10.1001/jama.1967.03130060156022