Instillation of water soluble contrast media into the pleural, peritoneal, or tumor cavities of 24 patients with neoplastic effusion was demonstrated to be a simple, safe, and useful technique. The determination of the extent of intracavitary loculation was reasonably accurate if care was exercised in the placing of the needle or catheter, if an adequate volume of dye was used, and if the patient's position was manipulated to insure adequate mixing of dye in the serous fluid. Since this method may be used to assure the correct position of the needle or catheter and to confirm adequate distribution, serious local reactions secondary to the use of intracavitary radioactive compounds or vesicant drugs may be avoided. Large intracavitary masses were demonstrated by this technique, but small tumors were not seen easily.
Piro AJ, Hall TC, Lewis JL, Griffiths CT. Use of Intracavitary Contrast Media in Patients With Neoplastic Effusions. JAMA. 1968;206(4):821–824. doi:10.1001/jama.1968.03150040033006