Vesicoureteral reflux in siblings or different generations has not been emphasized. In nine families, each with two members having unilateral or bilateral reflux, at least one member from each family has required surgical correction. Family surveys demonstrated other congenital and acquired urinary tract abnormalities. Failure of conservative management plus cystoscopic evidence of a defective ureteral orifice support a familial or hereditary basis for vesicoureteral reflux.
Schmidt JD, Hawtrey CE, Flocks RH, Culp DA. Vesicoureteral RefluxAn Inherited Lesion. JAMA. 1972;220(6):821–824. doi:10.1001/jama.1972.03200060049008