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The effectiveness of treatment of carcinoma of the bladder is based upon appropriate selection of a treatment modality which is specifically geared to the stage of infiltration and histologic differentiation of a given bladder tumor.1,4 Clinical examinations, consisting of (1) bimanual examination with the patient under anesthesia, (2) cystoscopy, and (3) deep-muscle biopsy, have provided fairly accurate data for the staging and grading of bladder tumors.4,5
Conventional roentgenographic examinations, such as cystograms, intravenous urograms, superimposition cystograms, and double contrast cystograms, are aimed at the demonstration of a mass lesion, but are ill-suited for differentiation of inflammatory from neoplastic disease.6,7
Arteriography is a new technique which allows selective visualization of the tumor itself by demonstrating the characteristic abnormal vessels of the tumor.8-14 Identification of abnormal vessels supplying the tumor allows accurate assessment of the size of the tumor; depth of penetration into the muscular wall of the
Lang EK. Triple Cystogram and Selective Arteriography. JAMA. 1969;207(2):342–344. doi:10.1001/jama.1969.03150150054012