Total parenteral nutrition is a procedure capable of maintaining patients in good condition for prolonged periods while underlying disease is being treated. Achievement of this goal presents problems in formulation, in sterile preparation, and in safe administration of the nutrient solution. A practical program is outlined for simple, inexpensive, and sterile preparation of standard solutions in closed systems. Indications and precautions for this potentially life-saving treatment are discussed together with consideration of routes of administration, ancillary equipment, and nutrient requirements for total parenteral nutrition.
Shils ME. Guidelines for Total Parenteral Nutrition. JAMA. 1972;220(13):1721-1729. doi:10.1001/jama.1972.03200130051010